When to introduce evidence and examples
Introductory phrases to use and their contexts
1.Purpose：stating information that is not “common knowledge”
· [use relevant style guide’s in-text citation format]
· As [Author] indicated/ stated/ discovered
· According to [Author]
· As Smith indicated in a 2010 study . . .
· According to Marks and Peters . . .
2.Purpose：drawing conclusions, making inferences, or suggesting implications based on specific data
· as evidenced/ suggested/ indicated by
· based on
· can be seen/ observed when
· as seen in
· which is made apparent when
· is demonstrated by/ through/ when
· hinges on
· The strong negative correlation suggests that . . .
· As evidenced/ suggested/ indicated by their enlarged adrenal glands, patients with . . .
· Based on self-reported survey results . . .
· This phenomenon can be seen/ observed when wind speeds exceed . . .
· As seen in the high recurrence rates of . . .
· The causal link between A and B, which is made apparent when B triggers . . .
· The efficacy of chocolate as a cure for unhappiness is demonstrated by survey results highlighted in . . .
· This conclusion hinges on . . .
3.Purpose：clarifying a prior statement
· for example
· for instance
· by way of illustration
· as an example
· to clarify
· to explain further
· to be specific
· that is,
· in other words
· This occurrence is rare. For example, only one in twenty . . .
· It is unlikely that current population growth rates are sustainable. For instance, several major coastal cities are already suffering from . . .
· By way of illustration, less than 20% of new matriculates feel prepared for . . .
· As an example, when a country faces economic recession, polls indicate that over 80% of the population supports . . .
· To clarify, not all government-funded facilities provide . . .
· To explain further, large doses of Agent O can trigger . . .
· Millennials prefer flexible work conditions, namely the ability to work remotely.
· To be specific, bull markets can . . .
· That is, significant and sudden drops in temperature can . . .
· In other words, short bursts of high-intensity ultrasound can . . .
4.Purpose：identifying representative examples of a category
· for example/ instance
· such as*
· one/ another example
· an example being
*NOTE: “such as” and “like” have two different uses. “Such as” introduces a specific example that is part of a category. “Like” suggests the listed items are similar to, but not included in, the topic discussed.
· Typhoons are considered acts of God, for example/ instance.
· The island is home to many native carnivorous plants, such as Venus flytraps.
· The only known bioluminescent vertebrates are fish (e.g. the anglerfish and lantern fish).
· One/ another example of this exception is . . .
· I prefer outdoor sports like mountain climbing because they allow me to enjoy nature while exercising.
· All mammals, excluding humans, stop drinking milk at a young age.
· All stars, including our sun, . . .
· Hawks feast on rodents, an example being . . .
· in a similar case
· unlike the case of
· in the same way
· as a case in point
· in a typical situation
· in a normal scenario
· In a similar case, a male patient with arthritis . . .
· Unlike a single-blind study, a double-blind study reduces the risk of observer bias.
· Redundancy and wordiness can be reduced in the same way: through careful editing.
· As a case in point, let’s look at the situation in which . . .
· In a typical situation, marsupials would . . .
· In a normal scenario, cortisol suppressant effects . . .
6.Purpose：emphasizing a point by highlighting a specific situation
· for example
· in fact
· as a case in point
· Nocturnal marsupials, for example, have . . .
· Indeed, since the World Health Organization declared an end to the Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo . . .
· Ice-free habitats around Antarctica, in fact, have . . .
· High carbon steel alloys, notably, undergo a transformation when . . .
· Markedly, the deserts irregular rainfall levels have . . .
· As a case in point, the last known male northern white rhinoceros .
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