“阅读写作”也是留学生中一种常见的作业，即“反思写作”。那什么是“阅读写作”呢？怎样写“引用写入”？这篇文章 academicgod教育小编分享了 Reflective Writing的写作定义和写作方法，最后还附上了范文。
What is reflection, and why is it important?
Reflection is a purposeful activity in which you analyse experiences, or your own practice/skills/responses, in order to learn and improve.
Reflection in academia学术反思
We reflect quite naturally in our day to day lives, thinking about things that have happened, why they happened, whether we handled them well. In academia, you may be asked to formalise your reflections to show that learning is taking place.
我们在日常生活中很自然地反思，思考已经发生的事情，为什么会发生，我们是否处理得当。在学术界，你可能会被要求把你的反思正式化，以表明学习是一种习惯This may involve:
Reflecting on your own professional or academic practice
Scrutinising an experience and the way you dealt with it
Evaluating a project or experiment and considering how to do it better next time
Reflecting on things you have read and linking theory with practice/reality
‘It is not sufficient to have an experience in order to learn. Without reflecting on this experience it may quickly be forgotten, or its learning potential lost.’ (Gibbs, 1988, p9)
Models of reflection反思模型
There are frameworks that you can use to aid your reflective process. Alternatively, you may want to create your own. It needs to be a set of questions that you can ask yourself about an experience, plus a process by which you apply and learn from your reflection. Here are just two examples of models of reflection:
Reflective writing for an assignment如何写一篇反思性的论文作业
Writing reflectively for the purposes of an assignment should not involve merely describing something that happened. Nor does it mean pouring out everything you think and feel in a totally unstructured way. Reflective writing requires a clear line of thought, use of evidence or examples to illustrate your reflections, and an analytical approach.
You are aiming to strike a balance between your personal perspective, and the requirements of good academic practice and rigorous thinking. This means:
developing a perspective, or line of reasoning
demonstrating that you are well informed, have read relevant literature and reflected on its relevance to your own development
showing that you recognise that situations are rarely simple and clear-cut
writing about the link between your experiences/practice and your reading
writing in an appropriate style.
As an example, consider the extract below, which is from a nursing student’s reflective essay. Consider how the writer develops a line of reasoning based on their own thoughts and experiences, and then links it to wider reading.
Please remember: different disciplines have different requirements and styles. This is an example of just one approach.
During term one I found myself inwardly questioning the reliability and validity of scientific journals, as I came across conflicting studies and contradictory data in our weekly research and feedback sessions.
I was surprised at how other members of the group appeared to automatically trust the content of peer-reviewed journals and I sometimes felt that what was presented back to the group was accepted as factual as long as there was a reference attached.
This prompted me to read into what I now realise is referred to as publication bias and has been widely documented in recent years.
For example, Dawes (2005) argues that, although reputable journals adopt a robust peer review process, articles still get published with significant flaws:
‘Journals have to publish to survive and they want to publish articles that deal with topical important issues of the day. Sometimes this imperative overrides the critical review process.’ (Dawes 2005:6)
Furthermore, Brooks (1997:46) highlights the fact that statistical significance increases the likelihood of a researcher’s work being published, which might tempt some researchers to tamper with the data.
I did not want to appear cynical to the rest of the group and kept these concerns to myself, which on reflection I perhaps could have volunteered for discussion. Instead I felt that in order to construct an accurate care plan at the end of each scenario I had to adopt a more robust approach in selecting appropriate journal texts.
After these realisations, I found it more helpful to employ the use of meta-analyses and systematic reviews for assessing research. I found that using systematic reviews saved time searching through numerous journals, and I found the Cochrane Library a useful electronic information source.
Reflection is a useful process even if you have not been set a specific reflective assignment. It helps you to make sense of and learn from your experiences.
Many degrees involve assessed reflective writing. This is to allow you to demonstrate that you can think critically about your own skills or practice,in order to improve and learn. It is important to analyse rather than just describe the things you are reflecting on, and to emphasise how you will apply what you have learned.
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